I bow in reverence to Arihants
I bow in reverence to Siddhas
I bow in reverence to Acharyas
I bow in reverence to Upadhyayas
|Namo Loye Savva
I bow in reverence to all Sadhus
Eso Panch Namoyaro
This five-fold salutation
Destroys all sins
And amongst all auspicious things
Is the most auspicious one
- मंगलाणं च
With the above invocation repeated several times every day the
Jains bow with hands folded in anjali (worship) in the four
cardinal directions, East, West, South and North.
While reciting the
Navkar Mantra, we are bowing down with respect Arihantas, Siddhas,
Acharya(heads of sadhus and sadhvis), Upadhyaya (those who teach
scriptures to sadhus and sadhvis), Sadhus (monks, who have
voluntarily given up social, economical and family relationships) and
Sadhvis (nuns, who have voluntarily given up social, economical
and family relationships). Collectively, they are called Panch Parmesthi (five
supreme spiritual people). In this mantra we worship their virtues rather
than worshipping any one particular person or Tirthankara. This mantra is
also called Namaskar or Namokar Mantra as we are bowing down.
The word Arihanta is made up of two words: 1) Ari, meaning enemies, and 2)hanta,
meaning destroyer of the enemies. These enemies are inner desires known as
passions such as anger, ego, deception, and greed within us. When a person
(soul) wins over these inner enemies he/she is called Arihanta. Arihanta
destroys the four ghati karmas namely Jnanavarniya (knowledge blocking) Karma,
Darshanavarniya (perception blocking) Karma, Mohniya (passion causing) Karma
and Antaraya (obstacle causing) Karma. Arihanta attains: 1) Kevaljnan, perfect
knowledge due to the destruction of all Jnanavarniya Karmas, 2) Kevaldarshan,
perfect perception due to the destruction of all Darshanavarniya
karmas, 3) becomes passionless due to the destruction of all Mohniya Karmas,
and 4) gains infinite power due to the destruction of all Antaraya Karmas.
Siddhas are the liberated souls. They are no longer among us because they have
completely ended the cycle of birth and death. They have
reached the ultimate highest state, salvation. They do not have any karmas, and they do not collect any new
karmas. This state of true freedom is called Moksha.
Acharyas carry the message of Jina. They are our
spiritual leaders. Acharyas must have to do in-depth study and achieve mastery
of the Jain scriptures (Ägams). In addition to acquiring a high level of
spiritual excellence, they have the ability to lead the monks and nuns. They
know various languages with a sound knowledge of other philosophies and
religions of the area and the world.
The title Upadhyayas is given to those
Sadhus who have acquired a special knowledge of the Ägams and
philosophical systems. They teach Jain scriptures to sadhus and sadhvis.
SADHUS AND SADHVIS
When householders become detached from the
worldly aspects of life and get the desire for spiritual uplift (and not
worldly uplift), they give up their worldly lives and become sadhus (monk)
or sadhvis (nun). A male person is called sadhu, and a female person is
called sadhvi. At the time of Deeksha, the sadhu or sadhvi voluntarily accepts
to obey following five major vows for the rest of his/her life:
1. Commitment of Total Ahimsa (non-violence)-not to commit any type of violence.
2. Commitment of Total Satya (truth)-not to indulge in any type of lie or falsehood.
3. Commitment of Total Asteya (non-stealing)-not to take anything
unless it is given.
4. Commitment of Total
Brahmacharya (celibacy)-not to indulge in any sensual activities
5. Commitment of Total Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)-not to acquire more
than what is needed to maintain day to day life.